Blog Post

6 Ways to Ventilate Your Home (and Which is Best)

February 5, 2014

How a green home really "breathes"

Zehnder HRV Should a green home require a piece of ventilation equipment like our  Zehnder HRV? Photo Credit: Alex Wilson

One of the features in our new house that I’m most excited about barely raises an eyebrow with some of our visitors: the ventilation system. I believe we have the highest-efficiency heat-recovery ventilator (HRV) on the market—or at least it’s right up there near the top.

But first, a lot of people may be wondering, should a "green" home require mechanical ventilation? A lot of people might think that this is just the kind of energy-consuming system that homes should be getting away from—while cracking windows for fresh air.

Why ventilate?

For centuries homes weren’t ventilated, and they did all right, didn’t they? Why do we need to go to all this effort (and often considerable expense) to ventilate houses today?

There are several reasons that ventilation is more important today than it was long ago. Most importantly, houses 100 years ago were really leaky. Usually they didn’t have insulation in the walls, so fresh air could pretty easily enter through all the gaps, cracks, and holes in the building envelope.

Also, the building materials used 100 years ago were mostly natural products that didn’t result in significant offgassing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde, flame retardants, and other chemicals that are so prevalent in today’s building materials, furnishings, and other stuff.

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Ventilation options

Ventilation can take many different forms. Very generally, systems can be categorized into about a half-dozen generic types:

  1. No ventilation. This is almost certainly the most common option in American homes. There is no mechanical system to remove stale indoor air (and moisture) or bring in fresh outside air. In the distant past, when buildings weren’t insulated, this strategy worked reasonably well—relying on the natural leakiness of the house. It’s worth noting, though, that even a leaky house doesn’t ensure good ventilation. For this strategy to work there has to be either a breeze outside or a significant difference in temperature between outdoor and indoors. Either of these conditions creates a pressure difference between indoors and out, driving that ventilation. On calm days in the spring and summer, there might be very little air exchange even in a really leaky house.
  2. Natural ventilation. In this uncommon strategy, specific design features are incorporated to bring in fresh air and get rid of stale air. One approach is to create a solar chimney in which air is heated by the sun, becomes more buoyant, and rises up and out through vents near the top of the building; this lowers the pressure in the house, which draws fresh air in through specially placed inlet ports. Many homeowners may think of opening windows as part of their ventilation strategy, but most people only open windows in the summer—if at all—and because of the pressure differential issue just mentioned, open windows don't guarantee good air exchange.
  3. Exhaust-only mechanical ventilation. This is a relatively common strategy in which small exhaust fans, usually in bathrooms, operate either continuously or intermittently to exhaust stale air and moisture generated in those rooms. This strategy creates a modest negative pressure in the house, and that pulls in fresh air either through cracks and other air-leakage sites or through strategically placed intentional make-up air inlets. An advantage of this strategy is simplicity and low cost. A disadvantage is that the negative pressure can pull in radon and other soil gases that we don’t want in houses.
  4. Supply-only mechanical ventilation. As the name implies, a fan brings in fresh air, and stale air escapes through cracks and air-leakage sites in the house. The air supply may be delivered to one location, dispersed through ducts, or supplied to the ducted distribution system of a forced-air heating system for dispersal. A supply-only ventilation system pressurizes a house, which can be a good thing in keeping radon and other contaminants from entering the house, but it risks forcing moisture-laden air into wall and ceiling cavities where condensation and moisture problems can occur.
  5. Ventilation System Schematic A ventilation system schematic from the Building Science Corporation fact sheet on balanced ventilation. Click to enlarge.Photo Credit: Building Science Corp.

     

    Balanced ventilation. Much better ventilation is provided through a balanced system in which separate fans drive both inlet and exhaust airflow. This allows us to control where the fresh air comes from, where that fresh air is delivered, and from where exhaust air is drawn. Balanced ventilation systems can be either point-source or ducted. With ducted systems, it makes sense to deliver fresh air to spaces that are most lived in (living room, bedrooms, etc.) and exhaust indoor air from places where moisture or pollutants are generated (bathrooms, kitchen, hobby room).
  6. Balanced ventilation with heat recovery. If there are separate fans to introduce fresh air and exhaust indoor air, it makes a lot of sense to locate these fans together and include an air-to-air heat exchanger so that the outgoing house air will precondition the incoming outdoor air. This air-to-air heat exchanger—more commonly referred to today as a heat-recovery ventilator or HRV—is the way to go in colder climates. A slightly different version, known as an energy-recovery ventilator (ERV), is similar but transfers moisture as well as heat from one airstream to the other, keeping more of the desirable humidity in the house in the winter and reducing the amount of humidity introduced from outdoors in the summer.

I’m a firm believer that all homes should have mechanical ventilation. With better-insulated, tighter homes that ventilation is all the more important. But even in a very leaky house, one can’t count on bringing in much fresh air or calm days in the spring and fall when there isn’t a pressure differential across the building envelope.

If budgets allow, going with balanced ventilation is strongly recommended, and if you’re doing that in a relatively cold climate, like ours, then providing heat recovery is a no-brainer. Mechanical ventilation always takes energy; with heat recovery the energy penalty of fresh air is minimized.

Alex is founder of BuildingGreen, Inc. and executive editor of Environmental Building News. In 2012 he founded the Resilient Design Institute. To keep up with Alex’s latest articles and musings, you can sign up for his Twitter feed.

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Comments

April 28, 2015 - 2:57 pm

We bought a house in Hot Springs, Arkansas, in 2010 that has had a continuing issue of excessive moisture readings and moldy smells, primarily in a west and south facing corner. The house is on a slab. We first thought pressure washing created the problem, then a poorly fabricated flagstone patio was a suspect. Uncaulked windows were also an item of interest. We have had two sessions of mold remediation, pulling built-ins and drywall, etc. Both times mold was treated and or the drywall/insulation, etc. was removed. We also removed the flagstone, installed a French drain and replaced the patio with a concrete surface. We also improved the diversion of water away from the foundation. Additionally we have noticed unexplained high moisture readings in an east wall. We were told the east shrub bed was too high, so we pulled the shrubs, lowered the bed, replaced the shrubs and installed a French drain in the space close to the house. My wife still complains of a moldy smell in that area. The house sits relatively high sloping away and water should be moving away from the foundation. Several "experts" in fixes for our problem have come by, but most can't determine the source of moisture. We wondered if poorly installed vapor barrier in the slab construction is the problem, but the wood floors remain in good shape. The roof is cap vented. I have usually had wind turbines, but generally the homes in this area are capped. We had a wet summer last year and so far, a wet spring. Moisture readings for our suspect areas are about 12% in the drywall. What would you recommend to resolve our problem?

April 29, 2015 - 9:36 am

John, I'm sorry to hear about your troubles. Based on my conversation with Peter Yost, our resident building scientist, it sounds like you've done a lot of work that was a good idea anyway, even though it doesn't seem to have solved the particular moisture issue of concern. So that's a great start.

There are building science experts who perform hygrothermal analyses of homes. Most of the specialists who work with moisture control are NOT the same specialists who work with mold remediation. This is how you've ended up in a situation where you've remediated mold twice without actually finding the source of the moisture; unlike the drainage work you've done, that was a waste of your time and money. What you need is a building science expert. Peter is one of a handful of people who consult on this kind of work (he'll be writing to you separately to discuss). I'm working on posting a PDF he put together on what a hygrothermal analysis actually entails; if you hire someone to help you, that person should be familiar with the same principles. I'll post a link to that document later today. It's likely you will need to find a building scientist who can investigate the problem at your home.

As a side note, Peter mentioned that your moisture meter may not have been dialed to the drywall setting for the 12% reading. Drywall is so dense that it is completely saturated at 2% moisture content; after that it just becomes a slurry. It was likely on the setting for wood.

April 30, 2015 - 10:17 am

Here's a quick explanation of what a hygrothermal assessment can tell you about a moisture situation.

April 7, 2017 - 7:24 pm

With a friend, I built a beautiful deck around my house (500m2), in australian hardwoods....I live in Sydney, on the northern beaches area....which has become more tropical, with global warming.

Approximately 100m2 of the deck, is around 8-10" above the ground and approximately 200m2, is just 4-6" above the ground. Obviously there is no air flow....consequently, when the rains come...the decking remains wet on the bottom, then drys on the top....hense, due to the expansion the 140mm wide boards, close the gaps between the boards and start to 'cup' the boards. Over that period i have had a constant battle with the contraction (summer) and expansion (winter). I have run a circular saw blade down the joins, in the worst cupping areas....however some large 'ugly' gaps appear in the worst of a dry summers contractions.

After the joint cutting...the expansion still closes the gaps between the boards, but the cupping 'may' have subsided.....3 years after installation.

There is a creek at the rear of the house...so the ground water level is normally quite high, therefore the surface soil can be quite damp during the wet periods.

I don't have the option to raise the deck off the ground....so, I am looking for an external solution.

I am currently looking at installing some kind of mechanical ventilation....like a 6" fan, placed under the deck, with the outlet connnected to my rear fence (open to a reserve).....the inlet open, to hopefully draw some of the damp air and moisture from under the decking.

My question to you/your colleagues is: would a 6" fan (rated at 490m3/hr), be sufficient to draw air from under the decking. My fear is that the fan will just draw air from the gaps in the decking or nearest opening.....rather than from the furthest darkest wetest areas.

I realise that it's difficult to capture all of the peramaters, but any guidance would be much appreciated.

Thanks and regards,

Jim 

May 29, 2018 - 10:23 am

i recently put 1'thick insulation and hardy board on my house.  i covered up the vents that were on there on the north and south side.  i just put on the roof a solar exhaust fan.  will that be enough to suck out all the hot air in the attic?

thanks Scott